Definitive Guide to Golden Eagle Nesting Location, Behavior and Eggs

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Aquila chrysaetos, the Golden Eagle, is one of the biggest predatory birds in the world. It is a sight to see, flying over steppe and wide grasslands. The best places to build nests are on rocky ledges, inconspicuous locations on cliffs, or on the highest branches of towering trees that provide a broad view of their hunting territories. It is preferable to be in remote, isolated locations where there is less likelihood of human disruption.

Selecting the Ideal Location

When choosing a nesting place, Golden Eagle couples need to be in a distant, undisturbed environment; having a good view of the surrounding area is also important. Uncertainty surrounds who makes the final site selection, however nests, or eyries, that have proven effective in prior seasons are often utilized again in succeeding years.

During the mating season, both males and females may construct and maintain many alternative nests within the same territory.

In areas devoid of trees, golden eagles prefer to build their nests on cliffs and rocky ledges. When there are tall trees around, the top branches are easily exploited as nesting places; in the absence of trees or cliffs, eyries may be constructed on the ground. Positive outcomes have also been seen when artificial nest platforms, intended to increase the likelihood of successful nesting, are used. On occasion, man-made buildings such as electrical pylons and communication towers are used.

The right location is crucial since inaccessible clifftop locations provide safety from any predators bold enough to try and attack these formidable raptors’ nests. A nest near feeding grounds is also very important, as it will help meet the intensive needs of feeding hungry, quickly developing chicks.

The ability to take off and grab hold of a strong updraft for hunting is a crucial aspect that influences an eagle’s choice of nest site. As such, an open, largely unobstructed environment with little forest cover is desirable.

In areas devoid of trees, golden eagles prefer to build their nests on cliffs and rocky ledges.

Season of the Year

All year long, golden eagles stay together, and they start mating in the northern hemisphere in January and continue until March.

Along the US Pacific coast, the first eggs are deposited in late January or early February. A little later, throughout February and March, they are placed farther east. Breeding seasons in Alaska and Canada sometimes run late, from late March to early May or June at the latest.

The mating season in Europe lasts around four months, with March being the peak laying month. The most recent clutches will be finished by August. From October to January, laying takes place across northern Africa and farther south.

Nest Building

Nest preparations start around a month before the first eggs are deposited; in a Golden Eagle’s area, up to four alternative nests may be built.

Together, the male and female gather appropriate huge sticks from the ground or break off old branches that capture their attention in order to create a stick foundation. Using their feet and beaks, they carry both dead and living branches to the nest location. As the structure develops, it may also include antlers, bones, and artificial objects like metals, paper money, and trash.

Together, the males and females build a loose interior cup by covering the inside of the nest construction with new, green leaves and other vegetation. The most popular materials utilized for the interior lining are grasses, lichens, and mosses.

The finished construction is rounded, heavy, and unkempt, but it is firmly fastened together. A first-year nest’s diameter is typically around one meter, but since they are improved and used again each year, nests may grow to rather spectacular sizes—a Scottish nest was once measured to be 5.2 meters high.

Mating and Breeding

Golden Eagle mates are lifelong partners that create deep ties. If one partner passes away, however, a replacement will be located quite fast.

Golden Eagles may establish couples at any time of year in places where they live year-round, and their bonds are strong enough to last beyond a single mating season. The pair bonds of migrating Golden Eagles are less well understood, while it’s thought that they may not always last the winter, especially if they return to a region that has now been claimed by another couple.

Mutual flight displays, pursuits including gliding and flying, and couples perching closely together are examples of courtship behaviors. In an effort to impress a potential partner, males pick up and dump boulders during courting flights, then quickly swoop down to pick them back up in midair. After that, females perform a similar ritual using sticks or soil, sealing the relationship for life as opposed to having to repeat it every year like in the case of some bird species.

Golden eagle couples may copulate at any time of year, not just during the breeding season, however, it usually happens 40–46 days prior to the laying of eggs.


Golden eagle eggs are about the same size as a big hen’s egg, with typical lengths of 6.8 cm to 8.6 cm (2.7 in to 3.4 in), widths of 4.9 cm to 6.4 cm (1.9 in to 2.5 in), and weights of around 140 g (0.3 lb).

The creamy white eggs of golden eagles are highly speckled with darker blotches that vary in hue from deeper gray to yellow-brown. The eggshell’s feel is comparable to that of an egg laid by a chicken.

There are usually one to three eggs in a clutch, however two are the most frequent. Nests with four eggs are seen sometimes, and in 1928, a five-egg nest was documented as well. Until the clutch is finished, eggs are deposited every other day, and incubation starts as soon as the first egg is placed.

Every year, couples of golden eagles will raise just one brood. Re-nesting efforts after a nest failure are uncommon but not unheard of.

Every year, golden eagle partners produce a single brood, with the female at the nest with the two-week-old youngster.

The Incubation Cycle of the Young

Incubation patches are developed by Golden Eagles in both sexes, albeit the females’ patches are more noticeable. The majority of incubation tasks and all nocturnal brooding are performed by females. Males feed food to their spouse on the nest, although they only spend 10–14% of their time incubating.


Eagle chicks take their time to completely emerge into the world during the slow process of hatching. About fifteen hours before the first fractures in the eggshell show up, they may be heard from within the egg.

After the shell is first breached, nothing happens for around 27 hours. After 35 hours, the shell breaks completely, and by 37 hours, the chicks are out of the egg fully. They are coated in fluffy white down and remain mostly sedentary for the first ten days.

In the chronological order that they were deposited, eggs from the same clutch hatch many days apart. Younger eagle siblings are especially vulnerable during the early nesting phase, when there is one of the fiercest rivalries between siblings in the natural world.

Using its beak to poke or even physically push the smaller, weaker nestmate out of the nest, the elder hatchling may often attempt to attack it. Even if the younger nestlings targeted by these brutal assaults manage to survive, they may still starve to death since they cease pleading with their parents for food after the first three weeks.

The young eagles are unable to control their own body temperature while they are being raised by their parents for up to 20 days.

Golden Eagles get incubation patches on both sexes, however the females’ are more noticeable.


Male Golden Eagles usually grow stronger wings and practice flapping and hopping for many weeks before trying to fly, which allows them to be ready to leave the nest sooner than females.

The oldest fledglings known to have left the nest successfully were documented to have done so at 45 days, while the youngest were recorded to have gone at 81 days. Fencing takes around 64 days to finish on average.

Young age

Young eagles will stay within a hundred meters of their nest for the first several weeks after they have flown, and they will still get food assistance from their parents throughout this time.

Their confidence and endurance allow them to try circle flight after around two to three weeks, but they don’t reach comparable heights to adult birds until about two months after they first leave the nest. At four months old, their association with their parents starts to wane, and by twelve weeks, they are mostly on their own.

A golden eagle spends the first three years of its existence alone while it searches for appropriate habitat and develops its hunting and survival abilities.

Parental Guidance

Only females are often seen feeding the young directly, however both parents are spotted bringing food to the nest after the young have hatched. After around five weeks, young eagles can feed themselves, and by six weeks, they can break prey into bite-sized pieces.

The female continues to brood the young hatchlings on the nest for protection and warmth throughout the night until they are between 17 and 45 days old, typically about 20 days. After hatching, females will stay close to their roosts for up to 54 days, watching after their young until they are completely independent.

Juvenile Golden Eagles eventually grow out of their parents’ care and are prepared to do it alone. After about 120 and 160 days, hunting endeavors—which are first conducted under the supervision of both parents—progressively expand in range, and solitary forage expeditions take the role of prey delivery.

Male Golden Eagles often practice flapping and hopping for many weeks before trying to fly, giving them the advantage over females in terms of being prepared to leave the nest sooner.

Obstacles and Dangers

Even though golden eagles are large, strong birds, nesting is a dangerous endeavor for them, and they are not guaranteed to survive beyond the nesting period.

Although they are the top predators in their food chain, golden eagles have few predators of their own. However, nests have been known to be destroyed by wolverines, bears, and even a raven once.

Human threats are arguably more serious and even deadly; hunting, habitat loss, and pollution are the main issues. When lead ammunition is used to hunt other wildlife, the corpses the animal feeds on become contaminated.

Eagles that feed on small animals that have consumed toxic substances are also at risk from pest control agents that specifically target rodent populations.

In much of the globe, golden eagles are protected by law and are regarded as a species of least concern. Much of North America’s population is essentially steady, while several regions of Europe are seeing some modest population growth.

Fascinating Information and Thoughts

A breeding couple seldom uses the same nest for more than four years in a succession, despite the fact that nests may be rebuilt on a regular basis.

Although breeding may occur the year before, young Golden Eagles may not reach their full adult plumage until their fifth year of life.

Final Thoughts

Nesting Golden Eagles are a valuable addition to any bird enthusiast’s species list, and they are best watched from a respectful distance. These real giants of the natural world will have the greatest chance of successfully bringing their young to the fledgling stage if there is as little disturbance as possible.

A golden eagle’s life may be captured on camera at every stage, and seeing their quick development and tumultuous sibling relationships can make for an engrossing live natural soap opera.

Nesting Golden Eagles are a valuable addition to any bird enthusiast’s species list, and they are best watched from a respectful distance.


How long does it take for Golden Eagles to incubate?

Before hatching, golden eagle eggs are nurtured for 43 to 45 days.

What percentage of juvenile Golden Eagles survive?

Just 2 out of every 4 nestlings survive long enough to fledge, thus survival to maturity or even fledgling age is not assured. Only around 25% of those who do decide to leave their nests will make it to adulthood.

How can one see Golden Eagles build their nests without upsetting them?

Golden eagles construct their nests in secluded areas, are very sensitive to disturbances in the area, and may decide to leave a nest if they believe it is in danger. Because of this, a lot of conservation groups have installed specialized camera feeds that broadcast live video, enabling visitors to see nests and nestlings up close without running the danger of upsetting them.

What can we do to support Golden Eagle conservation efforts?

Maintaining a safe distance from breeding and roosting locations and avoiding habitat disturbance or degradation are the main ways that people may support Golden Eagle conservation in the wild.

Any signs of human activity, such as the use of chemicals or pesticides on farms or gardens, the absence of litter or plastic pollution, and lead-free hunting methods in the area, should be avoided in order to prevent eagles from consuming contaminated prey.

I'm Nauman Afridi, the bird enthusiast behind My lifelong passion for birds has led me to create a space where fellow bird lovers can find valuable insights and tips on caring for our feathered friends.Professionally, I'm a brand strategist and digital marketing consultant, bringing a unique perspective to the world of bird care. Whether you're a novice or an experienced bird owner, is designed to be a welcoming community for all.Feel free to explore, and reach out if you have any questions or just want to chat about birds.
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